Australian tree species are being used extensively throughout the world because of their rapid growth and adaptability to many (harsh) environments. This study looks at the impact on Vietnam of some past ACIAR research activities. It shows that, through adaptation, significant improvements in productivity can be achieved by selecting tree provenances that are best suited to specific environments. This is doubly highlighted in the outcomes of the research reported here, which combined optimal provenance selection with the introduction of improved methods of establishing seed-production areas, seedling-seed orchards and clonal-seed orchards. Very high levels of adoption were found, assisted by new Government of Vietnam licensing of nurseries and certification regulations for seed.