This Small Research and Development Activity aims to establish the situation relating to site specific soil management of upland soils in Cambodia, and investigate the justification for an ACIAR-supported project. Improved crop production needs more fertile soil. Integrated nutrient management packages that use fertiliser, manure, compost, residue retention and other products can improve soil fertility. This will help farmers to grow cassava, maize, sugarcane and soybean, which are now in the top ten commodities produced in Cambodia. These crops are often grown on highly fertile upland soils in areas with developed markets (often in neighbouring countries). The Cambodian Agricultural and Research Development Institute (CARDI) has identified a priority for investment in soil survey and land capability mapping in upland areas and a need for integrated nutrient management. The Royal Government of Cambodia has prioritised research in soil fertility, conservation and classification and land capability assessment to support crop diversification in upland areas. This Small Research Activity will report on the status of land capability assessment and soil survey in Cambodia and recommend new technologies to improve the cost efficiency of land resource assessment. Project activities will deliver a comparative study of upland region land use practices with emerging crop production technologies. The project will identify options for crop choice and tailored soil management technologies.