Integrated timber and non-timber forest product (NTFP) management and production hold significant potential for smallholders in Indonesia because even though current trade volumes are small there is high growth potential for the niche markets. The aim of this project is to identify, enhance and expand smallholders’ involvement in the management of commercial, forestry-based products in eastern Indonesia. The project will also explore the key characteristics of an extension program that can deliver information on best practices for timber and NTFP management, production and value-added marketing. Improvements in teak silvicultural practices are expected to result in higher productivity and quality for at least 30% of farmers and improvements in marketing strategies are likely to increase sale prices for farmers by up to 10%. The project is expected to improve income for women, translating into more cash for medicine, nutritious foods and education. For men, higher household earnings from timber are likely to reduce the negative social consequences associated with long-distance migrant work.
January - May 2013
The project agreement between ACIAR and World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) as commissioned organisation was signed in February 2013. The four-year research project will be implemented in the provinces of Yogyakarta, Nusa Tenggara Barat and Nusa Tenggara Timur. The first project report will cover the inception and first project meeting.
The project began with an inception meeting held in Yogyakarta on 15 April 2013 followed by the first project meeting, 16-18 April 2013. The 46 participants (36 men and 10 women) included representatives of the project partners-Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR); Forestry Research and Development Agency of the Ministry of Forestry Republic of Indonesia, which includes research centres on forest productivity, agroforestry and non-timber forest products (NTFP); research centre from Universitas Mataram; WWF Indonesia; University of Western Australia; Threads of Life; Farm Forestry Consortium-and local government agencies, local universities and NGOs.
The project was designed on recommendations from three previous ACIAR projects that addressed ACIAR priorities: 1) ‘Improving economic outcomes for smallholders growing teak in agroforestry systems in Indonesia (FST/2005/177)’; 2) ‘Community forestry partnerships in Indonesia’ (FST/2003/025); and 3) ‘Enterprise development, value chains and evaluation of non-timber forest products for agroforestry systems in West Timor, Flores, Sumba and Savu in NTT (SMAR/2006/011)’. Most of the participants were stakeholders in those projects and provided significant input during the meetings. A field trip was conducted to Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta, to share information on the adoption of silvicultural technologies implemented through a previous project and the potential NTFP species available to the communities.
A metadata collection was begun (it is still in progress) during this reporting period to obtain information on maps, spatial distribution of villages, land-use systems and other statistical data at the research sites. These data will support the livelihoods’ survey, which will be held in the second half of the first year.
June 2013 - May 2014
The project began with an inception meeting held in Yogyakarta in April 2013. The four-year project will be implemented in the provinces of Yogyakarta, Nusa Tenggara Barat and Nusa Tenggara Timur, building on research from three previous ACIAR projects:
1) ‘Improving economic outcomes for smallholders growing teak in agroforestry systems in
2) ‘Community forestry partnerships in Indonesia’ (FST/2003/025); and
3) ‘Enterprise development, value chains and evaluation of non-timber forest products for agroforestry systems in West Timor, Flores, Sumba and Savu in NTT (SMAR/2006/011)’.
The activities started with the reassessment and analysis of the timber and NTFP production practices, in the project area. Literature review, scoping studies, baseline household surveys and inventory studies of farms were conducted, which include a market appraisal of timber and non-timber products and assessment of current extensions methods. A policy and regulatory framework review was conducted in consultation with key stakeholders.
The major activities and developments for the year were:
Scoping and baseline survey across all sites
A scoping study was conducted across all sites to observe the actual farming and marketing practices and testing the questionnaire for the baseline survey. ICRAF, CIFOR and FORDA collaborated with partners from Universitas Mataram (Unram) in Sumbawa, Thread of Life (ToL) and University of Western Australia (UWA) in Gunung Mutis, and Farm Forestry Consortium (FFC) in Gunungkidul. The villages observed were Batudulang and Pelat in Sumbawa, Fatumnasi and Bosen in Gunung Mutis, and Bejiharjo and Karangduwet in Gunungkidul. Baseline surveys have been completed in the villages. A baseline survey has also been completed in Central Lombok as additional site implemented by FORDA. The survey used a questionnaire, modified from (FST/2005/177), to obtain household socioeconomic information, farm management practices, timber and non-timber marketing practices, and perceptions on policy and extensions services. Data is being analysed and the result will be presented at the annual project gathering.
Study on policy framework
Field surveys were conducted by CIFOR in collaboration with WWF Indonesia, in Sumbawa and Gunung Mutis and with Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) in Gunungkidul to identify current regulations, legislation and policies. Preliminary findings, indicate the policy constraints to facilitate cost-effective smallholders’ production, and integrated marketing of timber and NTFPs involve an overly regulated system and overlapping policy and regulation. The policy framework should facilitate the optimisation of timber and NTFP production system and more cost-effective value chains, through policies and regulations that are tailored to local context.
Timber product and NTFP market appraisal
A farm inventory study was completed in at least nine hamlets in Sumbawa and Gunung Mutis. The study assessed species composition, diversity and density, tree stand structures within the timber and NTFP production systems and utilization of non-tree species products for household livelihoods.
Preliminary research result dissemination
Seven members of this project attended The World Agroforestry Congress that was held in Delhi, India in February 2014. Three abstracts submitted by Dede Rohadi, Muktasam, and Aulia Perdana were accepted for oral presentation and another two from Muktasam and Aris Sudomo were accepted as posters. All abstracts incorporate preliminary results from the scoping study, which ranges from agroforesry planting pattern of tubers to marketing aspects of timber. Six articles were published in Kiprah Agroforestri, ICRAF Indonesia’s popular research publication, Vol 7 No. 1, in April 2014.
Overall, the second year of the project had been carried out with adjustments to a number of activities. Within this reporting period an annual meeting was held in August 2014 to communicate and evaluate the project’s results to all project members and partner institution representatives, project advisory group and other stakeholders, which include representatives of local government.
During this period the project members continued to empower local communities and collaborators by designing and developing trials, collect growth and yield data on selected timber and non-timber products (NTFP), conduct farmer field school, developed models for smallholder businesses. Further achievements were made within the Policy Working Group (PWG), where collaboration across objectives was encouraged so that inputs provided to PWG can be comprehensive in formulating the planned policy recommendation.
Consultation on the assessed policy and regulations with government agencies, local communities and other key stakeholders were implemented. Most of the consultations conducted were in conjunction with dissemination processes on the results of the data analysis on baseline household data in three sites. Intensive consultation on the processes to facilitate the improvements were conducted through developing strategic planning for timber & NTFPs management at district level, and working plans which include training for local community to improve their policy knowledge and stakeholders at district level. Further step taken was to develop a collaborative work plan to address the value chain constraints and to implement the business models.
Assessment of current extension methods and practices were completed and the project completed a pilot field school scheme with subjects including timber and NTFP value chains and markets, local business model, Master Tree Grower measurement method, tree management, and plot management. This activity is progressing to develop a locally oriented extensions programs using a participatory approach to deliver information on the most appropriate practice for integrated plot management, timber and NTFP production, value-added marketing, and contribute to an effective dissemination of related policy and regulations.
The project has four objectives. Achievements under each are summarised below.
Objective 1: Develop and implement integrated timber and non-timber forest product (NTFP) production systems to enhance local livelihoods.
Earlier demonstration trials of priority timber and NTFP systems are being maintained.
1. Silvicultural management and intercropping ‘jahe emprit’ (Zingiber officinale var. amarum) and ‘kencur’ (Kaempferia galanga) for improving timber growth of teak in Pelat Village.
2. Identifying silvicultural practices to improve timber production of teak on sloping land in Pelat Village.
3. Management of natural ‘rumput ketak’ (Lygodium circinatum Burm.f. Sw) under different thinning and fertilization intensities in Batudulang Village.
4. Effects of fertilization and varieties of ‘tarum’ (Indigofera tinctoria) on leaves production in Bosen Village.
5. Effects of coppicing and fertilization intensities on fruit production of ‘kayu ules’ (Helicteres isora) in Bosen Village.
6. Improving productivity of unmanaged ‘bambu apus’ (Gigantochloa apus) clumps for quality shoots and culms in Bejiharjo Village.
7. Intercropping jahe emprit with teak under various silvicultural practices in Karangduwet Village.
8. Silvicultural practices to improve timber production of teak in Bejiharjo and Karangduwet villages.
Results of computer simulations of priority systems were evaluated with farmers, extension staff and researchers and will be finalised in September 2016.
Guidelines were published for integrated management of smallholders’ timber and NTFP systems for each site, developed through farmer field schools.
Objective 2: Identify and implement marketing strategies and value chains to improve timber and NTFP market links for smallholders
Models of smallholders’ enterprises for timber and NTFPs were established and work to refine the models continues. The quality, quantity and timing of NTFP products marketed by smallholders were assessed and small-scale business capacity building (technical and financial) conducted.
Farmers’ cross-visits to markets, industries and production areas were held to enhance exposure to most-appropriate small-enterprise models and marketing.
Workshops on cold-pressed nut oil production were conducted in Timor Tengah Selatan; and on smallholder business management in Sumbawa for ginger production and woodwork; and on bamboo in Gunungkidul.
Links with the private sector were established for indigo, nut oils, H. isora, and Usnea in Timor Tengah Selatan and timber and bamboo in Sumbawa and Gunungkidul.
Integrated marketing scenarios were assessed for each species using action research methods.
Objective 3: Analyse and improve policy framework to facilitate smallholders’ production and integrated marketing of timber and NTFPs
‘Grand strategies’ for integrated timber and NTFP management at the landscape level are under development led by policy working groups made up of representatives of all interested sectors.
In Sumbawa, the group was formalised on 23 Sept 2015 under District Head Decree No. 1224/2015. A strategic policy for added-value timber and NTFP products has become the mission of the newly-elected head of the district.
In Timor Tengah Selatan, the grand strategy is to become a reference for revising the medium-term management plans for villages, in line with the district’s regional medium-term plan, with budget allocation.
In Gunungkidul, to improve the cost effectiveness of the policy on timber verification and certification and promote NTFPs, assessments have done of the value chains and a provincial multistakeholder forum established with representatives from five district governments. Training has been conducted on regulations governing timber and NTFP management; on developing wood-processing enterprises; and NTFP-based processing and marketing strategies. Clarification of the management status of Bunder Grand Forest Park is underway with the aim of inclusion in the medium-term development plan. A survey was conducted to support a management plan for a botanical garden in the Karst Region along with a comparative study of the institutional arrangements of the bamboo growers’ association in Sleman District, focussing on bring in knowledge from industry.
A report has been published on ‘Critical review of the impacts of Law No. 23/ 2014 on community-based management regimes in facilitating the integrated management of timber and non-timber forest products at the farm and landscape level’.
Objective 4: Enhance expansion of smallholder-managed integrated timber and NTFP production systems
Assessment has been done of current extension methods, in consultation with community producers and government technical and extension agencies and a communications strategy implemented to share knowledge generated by the project.
Action plans have been produced for all research sites and capacity development for private extension agents and champion farmers conducted.
Three thousand copies of information sheets have been distributed to farmers, extension agents and other site stakeholders and a manual of most-appropriate extension practices is being prepared for publication.