- University of Tasmania, Australia
- University of Adelaide, Australia
- Ministry of Environment, Lands & Agriculture Development, Kiribati
- Ministry of Environment, Lands & Agriculture Development, Kiribati
- Department of Agriculture, Tuvalu
- Double Helix Tracking Technologies, Indonesia
- University of Adelaide, Australia
- National Agricultural Research Institute, Papua New Guinea
FST/2014/099: Enhancing private sector-led development of the Canarium nut industry in Papua New Guinea
Nuts have huge potential to improve the livelihood of the rural poor in developing countries and meet the Millennium Development Goal to eradicate poverty and hunger. Nuts have excellent nutritional value, can be stored for long periods and can be sold for cash, processed and exported to distant markets. Canarium indicum is an agroforestry tree in Eastern Indonesia and the Pacific that produces edible nuts and has been the focus of efforts by donor agencies to commercialize the industry in PNG and the Pacific.
This project seeks to expand markets and processing of canarium nuts in East New Britain, by strengthening private sector capacity and engagement using nuts from existing trees. Women conduct the majority of canarium nut growing and trading activities, including: nut cultivation, harvesting, processing and selling.
The project will take a whole of value-chain approach, and offer a range of interventions such as market research, technical advice, capacity building, business mentoring and access to infrastructure for both private and public sector stakeholders. The private sector will be targeted at 3 different scales: smallholder and small scale entrepreneurs, SMEs, and large scale processors. This in one of 5 projects in the TADEP program which aims to foster private sector led development in agriculture, increase agricultural productive capacity and improve access to markets for farmers in Papua New Guinea and Bougainville, particularly women farmers.
- University of Adelaide, Australia
- Centre for Rural Economy Development, Burma
- Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia
- University of Adelaide, Australia
- SPE Consulting, Solomon Islands
- Solomon Islands Government, Ministry of Forestry, Solomon Islands
- Southern Cross University, Australia
FST/2014/066: Improving returns from community teak plantings in Solomon Islands
A recent inventory by the Ministry of Forestry has estimated that there are currently (2014) 15,000 ha of plantations owned by 21,000 separate groups or individual growers in the Solomon Islands. Many of these were planted in the period 1995 -2000 and now these plantations are in need of either thinning or clear-felling. While the quality of the timber is good, the poor form of many trees is such that most cannot be sold commercially as round logs, which are also difficult to transport to the nearest port. In Cape York Peninsula, where sandalwood occurs naturally, there are often limited options for commercial development, but initial research under FST/2008/010 showed that forestry provides one of the few promising opportunities.
The project aims to develop a practical model suited to Small Island States that enables existing small scale teak plantations to be utilised and provides growers with good returns. This will be achieved by developing strategies that will allow growers to maximise the volume of timber that can be obtained from their plantations.
Turning moribund plantations into economic opportunities will assist communities to realise there are opportunities for sustainable income from plantations. Women in particular may benefit from developing secondary drying as a business opportunity. The environmental benefits will be realised through an increase in the area of degraded secondary forest which is brought back into productive forest management to provide timber for local processing and sale in the future.
- University of Adelaide, Australia
- University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia
- James Cook University, Australia
- Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Fiji
- University of the South Pacific, Fiji
- Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Australia
PARDI commenced in February 2010 and is currently on-track against project milestones.
To date, nine rapid supply chain reviews covering taro, cassava, breadfruit, coconut, pearls, sea cucumber, canarium nut, value added fisheries, and high value timber have been undertaken. A further ten partial reviews have been completed for virgin coconut oil (VCO), sweet potato, vegetables, yam, cocoa, coffee, vanilla, ginger, teak and mahogany.
To ensure integration of consumer and market demands impacting on these chains, we have also undertaken Fiji municipal markets and consumer household surveys, taro consumer preference studies in the Sydney and Auckland markets, and a Vanuatu tourist consumer study on cocoa and canarium nut products.
A further four chains will be assessed over the next few months including; sea cucumber industries (Fiji and Tonga), Mahogany (Fiji), Tamarind (Vanuatu) and participatory based reviews (Vanuatu).
As a consequence of these reviews, an initial four PARDI-funded research projects were commenced in late 2010 and early 2011. Collectively, PARDI now has project-based activities across all target Pacific countries (Fiji , Samoa , Tonga , Solomon Islands , Vanuatu  and Kiribati ). Project details below:
PRA 2010.01 - This James Cook University (JCU) led project is working to increase cultured pearl production capacity and improve quality in the Fiji and Tongan cultured pearl industries.
PRA 2010.02- This University of the South Pacific (USP) led project aims to evaluate and develop new value adding products and technologies for Tilapia and Caulerpa (seaweed spp.) for commercial application in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.
PRA 2010.04- This Southern Cross University (SCU) led project is undertaking a scoping study associated with the development of village-based training programmes and information sources for better postharvest handling and processing of sea cucumber in Fiji, Tonga and Kiribati.
PRA 2010.03 - A joint PARDI (Solomon Islands and Vanuatu) and ACIAR funded (PNG) project recently started, that aims to develop consumer-driven value-adding strategies and process techniques to support an emerging Canarium nut industry.
Supporting this portfolio are a series of ongoing small research activities (SRA) that include; consumer acceptance of the new taro cultivars, virgin coconut oil (VCO) chain assessment, PARDI Advisory Group operations, how best to create small-holder impacts from PARDI outputs, cocoa chain business case, and strategies for assessing and transferring capabilities.
The PARDI Advisory Group is currently reviewing a further five proposal, these include:
Creating export-orientated breadfruit production in Fiji
Producing high quality taro material in support of re-building Samoan taro exports
Premium market opportunities for smallholder cocoa producers in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands
Understand the impacts of population dynamics on supply chains
Establishing a series of pilot scale participatory guarantee schemes for vegetables
Much of PARDI’s supply-chain driven research projects have only recently commenced. Consequently it is pre-mature to demonstrate research outputs and impacts. Preliminary project-specific activities include:
PRA 2010.01 (Pearls): Pearl farmers and market structure research has been completed for Tonga and Fiji, a project-funded staff (Jamie Whitford) appointed, and initial farmer training commenced. A full-time Fiji-based project scientist was appointed in May 2011.
PRA 2010.02 (value-adding fisheries) Desk-top studies for Fiji, Samoa & Tonga markets, and analysis of chains in Fiji and Samoa have been completed. Work is ongoing for Tonga outer island groups.
PRA 2010.04 (Sea cucumber): Supply and value chains in Fiji and Tonga have been documented. An evaluation of export chains for processed product from Pacific into Asian markets is anticipated shortly. Tonga and Kiribati field trips are ongoing
SRA 2010.01 (Taro consumer study): Taro sensory testing has been completed in Fiji and Auckland markets and a final report completed.
PARDI has completed three training and development initiatives in the Pacific, including a pearl farmer training workshop in Tonga (Nov 2010), survey training for USP students (Dec 2010), and value chain analysis teaching workshop, Vanuatu (May 2011). Further targeted training of fisheries staff is ongoing (PRA 2010.01 and PRA 2010.04).
To ensure effective project communication we have held six coordination workshops, prepared two six-monthly newsletters, and plan to shortly post PARDI research reports on SPC’s LRD website.
PARDI has participated in series meetings to establish close links with other current ACIAR and donor-funded activities in the region. Through the assistance of SPC and ACIAR, strong engagement with other ACIAR and EU-funded projects particularly in taro and cocoa are emerging; and with PHAMA in cocoa and canarium nut.
Finally, over the last 6 months the PARDI team has increased by 30 staff. There are presently 51 PARDI research staff; with the possibility of a further 19 staff dependant on the outcome of research proposals reviews.
To ensure pending commissioned projects have sufficient operational time, PARDI has requested and been granted a variation to extend the project completion date to January 2015.
PARDI conducts value chain analysis and research to strengthen selected value chains in Pacific horticulture, fisheries and forestry products. This year’s achievements include:
16 technical training workshops have been held.
28 industry and government stakeholders are receiving targeted capacity building and technical support.
17 higher degree students are linked to PARDI projects.
Three major consumer and market place studies have been undertaken:
1. Retail transformation market study - 1000 households in Fiji;
2. Consumer study for Canarium and chocolate products - 400 tourists in Vanuatu;
3. Study of teak supply capabilities in Solomon Islands and a global market analysis is well advanced.
Cocoa. Work has continued with cocoa value chain stakeholders in Vanuatu and the Solomon islands. The collaboration continues to expand to include the Vanuatu statistics office, two new chocolate importers, and PHAMA as well as facilitation for an annual Vanuatu Cocoa Industry Strategic Workshop.
Breadfruit. Research trials and infrastructure associated with the PARDI breadfruit project were severely impacted by flooding in early 2012. A large number (2000) root suckers and marcotts are now ready for field trials. SPC has released nearly 200 tissue-cultured trees. Three orchards have been established and a total of 350 trees planted.
Taro. CePaCT has continued working on taro virus indexing and elimination, in support of the Samoan taro-leaf-blight breeding program. Two virus-elimination methods have been selected, which have proven effective against some TaBV and DsMV infecting cycle-7 taro. Agronomic assessments are being undertaken monthly, with soil tests on selected parameters almost completed. Corms are being sequentially harvested to determine the optimum age for harvesting. A market-based consumer-acceptance study of selected varieties amongst Samoans living in Auckland, New Zealand, was recently completed.
Vegetables. This project seeks to improve smallholder vegetable farmers (Fiji and Solomon Islands) access to high-value domestic markets, through the development of participatory guarantee schemes (PGS). Two target resort partners and four core PGS grower groups have been identified. An industry stakeholder workshop was held in November 2012. An assessment of postharvest wastage has been undertaken. In the Solomon Islands, an audit of farm business management skills has been undertaken.
Protective cropping crops. This new project seeks to address poor product quality and short seasonality, through the development and application of protective cropping systems in Fiji and Samoa. A preliminary assessment of existing protective cropping infrastructure has been completed, with current effort focussed on establishing four trial sites.
Pearls. Development plans for pearl industries in Fiji and Tonga have been drafted. A national spat collection program was initiated in Fiji, in partnership with Fiji Fisheries. Spat collection equipment has been deployed to communities adjacent to pearl farms throughout the country, to provide an on-going supply of oysters for current pearl farms, thus addressing a key bottleneck for the industry. A series of capacity-building workshops have been held. A survey of the mother-of-pearl (MOP) handicraft industry in Fiji showed that this sector had an annual value of more than F$10 million of which more than 85% is based on MOP items imported from Asia.
Value-added fisheries products. Marketing strategy and market chains have been developed and tested for tilapia and Caulerpa (sea grapes). In Fiji a cold-chain HACCP analysis is needed for Caulerpa. The shelf-life of Caulerpa has been extended up to 12 days and a research partnership with the private sector is assessing how this can be incorporated into the supply chain (for the export market).
Tamarind. The value chain map has been completed. Research has demonstrated that a solar dryer was more efficient than passive sun drying for tamarind and that the fruit dries to a commercially acceptable water activity level after two days of fine weather in the solar dryer. Microbiological test results indicated that all samples met Australian food standards.
Canarium. The industry has increased since the start of the project with a private-sector partner now selling product in supermarkets and planning to triple production to 1.5 tonnes in the coming year. Research on tree selection has shown that the profitability of the industry could be greatly increased by selecting trees with large kernels and high kernel recovery.
Teak. The social research team visited collaborating villages in Solomon Islands to document areas of concern for growers. Grower and plantation operations were then assessed to identify market drivers for teak and their effect on grower participation.
PARDI publications, reports and newsletters are available online: http://www.spc.int/lrd
Annual report not required. Awaiting Final report
Significant challenges face Pacific island countries (PICs) in improving livelihoods and overcoming poverty - in particular, food and fuel price surges in 2008, the impact of the global economic crisis, a number of natural disasters, difficulties maintaining infrastructure and the negative effects of climate change. PICs and international agencies acknowledge that the way to meet many of these challenges is to improve competitiveness of industries and thus provide a platform for stronger economic growth. This project will study issues particularly affecting food production and agricultural sector development. These include isolation from key growth markets and limited coordination of supply chains. There is a growing presence of internationally supported economic development programs that address some of these issues in the region; this project, involving ACIAR’s Pacific Agribusiness Research for Development Initiative (PARDI), will complement that work with a focus on research for development to underpin the competitiveness of targeted high-value agriculture, fisheries and forestry products.
Upland farms in Cambodia and Laos are often unproductive due to low fertility soils and water constraints, both drought and waterlogging. The farming systems currently consist of rainfed cropping and open grazing, but due to reduced dependence on livestock for draft and to labour shortages, there is a need to intensify and diversify these systems. Greater integration of livestock production systems into cropping systems is a significant opportunity to increase agricultural productivity and profitability, which will have a major impact on rural communities and national GDP. This strategy must be approached carefully, however, to identify and assess solutions that are environmentally, economically, culturally and sociologically aligned. Suggested changes need to be implemented through appropriate and effective dissemination and uptake pathways.
- Murdoch University, Australia
- Charles Sturt University, Australia
- NSW Department of Primary Industries, Australia
- General Directorate of Agriculture, Cambodia
- Cambodia Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Cambodia
- Royal University of Agriculture, Cambodia
- National University of Laos, Laos
- National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute, Laos
- International Development Enterprises, Cambodia
Vegetable production in Cambodia is expanding, with current production estimates at 400,609 tonnes/year (MAFF, 2013). By 2015, Cambodia and Lao PDR need to comply with ASEAN GAP standards to realise the full economic benefits of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). Likewise the move towards increased ‘official’ regional trade is likely to see further market opportunities open up for smallholders.
The overall aim of the project is to develop innovative production and supply chain systems that enable the vegetable industry to meet year round consumer demand for vegetables in Cambodia and Lao PDR. This project will employ a clustering approach for agro-enterprise development, building on the approach used in the Philippines vegetable program (HORT/2007/066/4; Murray-Prior et al., 2011). This will include the implementation of low-cost postharvest technologies and interventions developed in HORT/2006/107.
- Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, China
- Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam
The purpose of the project is to design policy to mitigate the cost of adjustment by farmers to climate change in China and Vietnam and thereby to increase their livelihood. The project will also
identify those farmers at risk from climate change by using farm level survey data to assess the forms and costs of response to climate change by different types of farmers
develop the capacity to model the consequences through market processes for prices and outputs and therefore incomes of climate change and farmer responses to climate change
use that modelling capability alongside an assessment framework to assess the effects of policy options and to identify and promote the adoption of priority policy responses to assist farmer adaptation and adjustment to climate change
The key output is therefore the analysis and adoption of policy options in response to climate change in order to raise farmer welfare.
The project builds on a first stage organised under an SRA in 2012, which included a first round of the collection of household survey data. Another set of data has now been collected in a second survey in both China and Vietnam. These data have been cleaned and significant papers have been written by both groups of researchers. There are important policy implications already evident including with respect to the importance of property rights, the impact of investment choices, water management and information systems.
Further analysis of the data and then modelling work will be undertaken in the final year of the project.
Communication systems with policy makers have been established, including advisory boards in both economics.
There are plans in place for reporting in academic networks including international conferences, planning and research meetings in Singapore and Guangzhou have been held and others are planned.
Millions of farmers in East and Southeast Asia must decide how to respond to climate change. They risk poverty by not responding but if they decide to act then their choices may be distorted by market failures and lack of information. Many climate related studies have identified the likelihood of significant effects on productivity, outputs and therefore prices of agricultural products as a result of climate change. The aim of this work is to design policy to mitigate the cost of adjustment by farmers to climate change and thereby to increase their livelihood. The project will focus on the rice sector. The objectives are to identify those farmers at risk from climate, to develop the capacity to model the consequences through market processes for prices and outputs and therefore incomes of climate change and farmer responses to climate change and to use that modelling capability alongside an assessment framework. This project follows on from earlier work assessing farmer responses to climate change adjustment policy options in China and Vietnam (ADP/2010/070) and a top down assessment of issues associated with climate change and regional agricultural commodity flows (ADP/2009/002).